- Orthogonal layout
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Orthogonal layout methods, which allow the edges of the graph to run horizontally or vertically, parallel to the coordinate axes of the layout. They typically involve a multiphase approach in which an input graph is planarized by replacing crossing points by vertices, a topological embedding of the planarized graph is found, edge orientations are chosen to minimize bends, vertices are placed consistently with these orientations, and finally a layout compaction stage reduces the area of the drawing.